Corey Angst, University of Notre Dame
Mishra, A.K., Anderson, C., Angst, C.M., and Agarwal, R. (2012 Forthcoming).
Electronic Health Records Assimilation and Physician Identity Evolution: An Identity Theory Perspective
Information Systems Research
With the lack of timely and relevant patient information at the point of care increasingly being linked to adverse medical outcomes, effective management and exchange of patient data has emerged as a strategic imperative for the healthcare industry. Healthcare informaticians have suggested that electronic health record systems (EHRS) can facilitate information sharing within and between healthcare stakeholders such as physician practices, hospitals, insurance companies, and laboratories. We examine the assimilation of EHRS in physician practices through a novel and understudied theoretical lens of physicians’ identities. Physician practices and the physicians that lead them occupy a central position in the healthcare value chain and possess a number of unique characteristics that differentiate them from other institutional contexts, including a strong sense of affiliation with other physicians, potent professional identities, and a desire for autonomy. We investigate two salient physician identities, those of careprovider and physician community, grounded in the roles physicians play and the groups with which they affiliate. We argue that these identities and their evolution, triggered by EHRS, manifest as both identity reinforcement and deterioration, and are important drivers of EHRS assimilation. We use survey data from 206 physician practices, spread across the United States, to test our theoretical model. Results suggest that physician community identity reinforcement and physician community identity deterioration directly influence the assimilation of EHRS. We further find that the effects of careprovider identity reinforcement and careprovider identity deterioration on EHRS assimilation are moderated by governmental influence. Theoretical and pragmatic implications of the findings are discussed.
Emily Block, University of Notre Dame
Mishina, Y., Block, E.S., & Mannor, M. 2012.
The path dependence of organizational reputation: how social judgment influences assessments of capability and character.
Strategic Management Journal, Volume 33, Issue 5, pages 459–477.
Drawing upon theory on social judgments and impression formation from social psychology, this paper explores the socio-cognitive processes that shape the formation of favorable and unfavorable organizational reputations. Specifically, we suggest that stakeholders make distinctions between an organization's capabilities and its character. We explain the nature and function of each and articulate the manner in which judgment heuristics and biases manifest in the development of capability and character reputations. In doing so, this research explores both the positive and negative sides of organizational reputation by examining the manner in which different types of reputations are built or damaged, and how these processes influence the ability of managers to enhance and protect these reputations.
Matt Bloom and Mike Crant, University of Notre Dame
Hon, A. H. Y., Bloom, M., & Crant, J. M.
Overcoming Resistance to Change and Enhancing Creative Performance
Journal of Management, Forthcoming
Drawing on the sense-making perspective, the authors develop and test a cross-level model of individual creativity, integrating resistance to change and three human resource contextual factors to moderate the individual relationship. This cross-level study of working adults from a wide array of Chinese companies addresses one of the major challenges managers face in enhancing individual-level creativity: overcoming employees’ resistance to change. The authors study the efficacy of three contextual factors that are important elements of the creative process—modernity climate, leadership style, and coworker characteristics—for helping managers overcome this challenge. The authors find that the three contextual variables moderate the negative relationship between resistance to change and creativity, and the pattern of results indicates that managing human resources practices may mitigate the detrimental effects of resistance to change on creativity.
John D’Arcy, University of Notre Dame
D’Arcy, J., and Herath, T. 2011.
A Review and Analysis of Deterrence Theory in the IS Security Literature: Making Sense of the Disparate Findings
European Journal of Information Systems (20:6), pp. 643-658.
Deterrence theory is one of the most widely applied theories in IS security research, particularly within behavioral IS security studies. Based on the rational choice view of human behavior, the theory predicts that illicit behavior can be controlled by the threat of sanctions that are certain, severe, and swift. IS scholars have used deterrence theory to predict user behaviors that are either supportive or disruptive of IS security, and other IS security-related outcome variables. A review of this literature suggests an uneven and often contradictory picture regarding the influence of sanctions and deterrence theory in general in the IS security context. In this paper, we set out to make sense of the discrepant findings in the IS deterrence literature by drawing upon the more mature body of deterrence literature that spans multiple disciplines. In doing so, we speculate that a set of contingency variables and methodological and theoretical issues can shed light on the inconsistent findings and inform future research in this area. The review and analysis presented in this paper facilitates a deeper understanding of deterrence theory in the IS security domain, which can assist in cumulative theory-building efforts and advance security management strategies rooted in deterrence principles.
Sarv Devaraj, University of Notre Dame
Kohli, R., Devaraj, S., Ow, T.
Does Information Technology Investment Influence a Firm’s Market Value? The Case of Non Publicly Traded Healthcare Firms
MIS Quarterly, 2012 Forthcoming.
Managers make informed information technology (IT) investment decisions when they are able to quantify how IT contributes to firm performance. While financial accounting measures inform IT’s influence on retrospective firm performance, senior managers expect evidence of how IT influences prospective measures such as the firm's market value. We examine the efficacy of IT’s influence on firm value combined with measures of financial performance for non publicly traded (NPT) hospitals that lack conventional market-based measures. We gathered actual sale transactions for 419 NPT hospitals in the United States to derive the q ratio, a measure of market value.. Our findings indicate that the influence of IT investment on the firm is more pronounced and statistically significant on firm value than exclusively on the accounting performance measures. Specifically, we find that the impact of IT investment is not significant on return on assets (ROA) and operating income for the same set of hospitals. This research note contributes to research and practice by demonstrating that the overall impact of IT is better understood when accounting measures are complemented with firm’s market value. Such market valuation is also critical in mergers and acquisitions decisions, an activity that is likely to accelerate in the healthcare industry. Our findings provide hospitals, as well as other NPT firms, with insights into the impact of IT investment and a pragmatic approach to demonstrating IT’s contribution to firm value.
Robert Easley, University of Notre Dame
Easley, R. F., C. A. Wood and S. Barkataki, 2010-11
Bidding Patterns, Experience, and Avoiding the Winner’s Curse in Online Auctions
Journal of Management Information Systems, Winter, 27:3, 241-268.
The design and implementation of online auctions has given rise to a unique set of bidding strategies that has stimulated a growing body of research. We make use of a theoretically grounded, well-understood, and empirically observable bidder behavior—the winner’s curse adjustment for the expected number of bidders in an auction—to examine the relationships between bidder experience, bidding patterns, and
the winner’s curse adjustment in rare coin online auctions. We also examine the impact of uncertainty on the winner’s curse adjustment, both by using precise measures of uncertainty and by considering seller and bidder strategies for reducing that uncertainty. We analyze a complete record of all auctions in a three-month period for rare U.S. coins, examining 284,681 bids from 62,625 auctions hosted by eBay, the market leader in online auctions. One of the main contributions of this paper is to demonstrate that the bidding patterns associated with different bidders are strongly related to whether they calculate their bids to take into account the number of competing bidders, as predicted for common-value auctions. This is a substantial extension and empirical confirmation of prior work that has explored the implications of different observed patterns of bidding. We also explore new territory by examining the relationships between bidder experience, bidding patterns observed, and the economic outcomes for bidders. We are
able to show that bidders with more domain-specific experience (rather than general auction experience) make better adjustments for the winner’s curse, that experience has an effect on the type of bidding strategy, and that the type of bidding strategy has a significant effect on the economic outcomes for the bidders.
Ante Glavas, University of Notre Dame
(with Herman Aguinis)
What we know and don't know about corporate social responsibility: A review and research agenda
In press at Journal of Management (review issue), 2012. DOI: 10.1177/0149206311436079
The authors review the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature based on 588 journal articles and 102 books and book chapters. They offer a multilevel and multidisciplinary theoretical framework that synthesizes and integrates the literature at the institutional, organizational, and individual levels of analysis. The framework includes reactive and proactive predictors of CSR actions and policies and the outcomes of such actions and policies, which they classify as primarily affecting internal (i.e., internal outcomes) or external (i.e., external outcomes) stakeholders. The framework includes variables that explain underlying mechanisms (i.e., relationship- and value-based mediator variables) of CSR–outcomes relationships and contingency effects (i.e., people-, place-, price-, and profile-based moderator variables) that explain conditions under which the relationship between CSR and its outcomes change. The authors’ review reveals important knowledge gaps related to the adoption of different theoretical orientations by researchers studying CSR at different levels of analysis, the need to understand underlying mechanisms linking CSR with outcomes, the need for research at micro levels of analysis (i.e., individuals and teams), and the need for methodological approaches that will help address these substantive knowledge gaps. Accordingly, they offer a detailed research agenda for the future, based on a multilevel perspective that aims to integrate diverse theoretical frameworks as well as develop an understanding of underlying mechanisms and microfoundations of CSR (i.e., foundations based on individual action and interactions). The authors also provide specific suggestions regarding research design, measurement, and data-analytic approaches that will be instrumental in carrying out their proposed research agenda.
Hong Guo, University of Notre Dame
Guo, H., Cheng, H.K., Bandyopadhyay, S.
Net Neutrality, Broadband Market Coverage, and Innovations at the Edge
Decision Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 1, 2012.
Abstract: Net neutrality (NN) is a widely debated policy issue that has the potential to alter the dynamics of accessing online content. The focal point of the debate lies in whether broadband service providers (BSPs) should be allowed to charge content providers for the preferential delivery of their digital content. This decision will affect broadband market coverage for end consumers as well as the issues of long-term competition and innovation in the market of digital content. Our research aims to analyze and address these issues. We propose a game theoretical model with three players—the BSP, the content providers, and the consumers—where the BSP, in its capacity as a gatekeeper between the content providers and the consumers, is modeled as a two-sided market platform. We find that while abandoning the principle of NN might sometimes result in increased consumer surplus and broadband market coverage, it can also hinder the ability of startups to compete against established rivals and thus reduce innovation at the edge. The results should be of great interest to policymakers as they debate on this very crucial issue.
Tim Judge, University of Notre Dame
John D. Kammeyer-Mueller, University of Florida
On the Value of Aiming High: The Causes and Consequences of Ambition
Journal of Applied Psychology
Ambition is a commonly mentioned but poorly understood concept in social science research. The current study sought to contribute to understanding of the concept by developing and testing a model in which ambition is a middle-level trait (Cantor, 1990)—predicted by more distal characteristics but due to its teleological nature, more proximally situated to predict career success. Using a seven-decade longitudinal sample of 717 high ability individuals from the Terman life-cycle study, results indicated that ambition was predicted by individual differences—conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and general mental ability—and a socioeconomic background variable: parents’ occupational prestige. Ambition, in turn, was positively related to educational attainment, occupation prestige, and income. Ambition had significant total effects with all of the endogenous variables, except mortality. Overall, the results support the thesis that ambition is a middle-level trait—related to but distinct from more distal individual difference variables—that has meaningful effects on career success.
Ken Kelley, University of Notre Dame
Kelly, K. & Rausch, J.R. (2011)
Sample size planning for longitudinal models: Accuracy in parameter estimation for polynomial change parameters.
Psychological Methods, 16, 391-405
Longitudinal studies are necessary to examine individual change over time, with group status often being an important variable in explaining some individual differences in change. Although sample size planning for longitudinal studies has focused on statistical power, recent calls for effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals underscore the importance of obtaining sufficiently accurate estimates of group differences in change. We derived expressions that allow researchers to plan sample size to achieve the desired confidence interval width for group differences in change for orthogonal polynomial change parameters. The approaches developed provide the expected confidence interval width to be sufficiently narrow, with an extension that allows some specified degree of assurance (e.g., 99%) that the confidence interval will be sufficiently narrow. We make computer routines freely available, so that the methods developed can be used by researchers immediately.
Mike Mannor, University of Notre Dame
Shamsie, J. & Mannor, M. J. 2012
Looking Inside the Dream Team: Probing into the Contributions of Tacit Knowledge as an Organizational Resource
Organization Science, in press.
Despite growing evidence that suggests that tacit knowledge can serve as a critical resource, there has been little effort to understand how such a form of personalized knowledge can provide strong advantages to an entire group or organization. In this paper, we develop four different categories of tacit knowledge that are derived from the basic tenants of the resource-based framework. More specifically, we distinguish between the discrete and linked forms of productive tacit knowledge that is possessed by individuals and administrative tacit knowledge that is held by managers within an organization. Next, we evaluate the role of each of these four different forms of tacit knowledge by focusing on the contribution of players and managers of professional sports teams. Our analysis of a large sample of Major League Baseball teams from 1985 to 2001 provides significant support for the importance of each of these categories of tacit knowledge for the performance of an organization.
Carrie Queenan, University of Notre Dame
Queenan, C., C. Angst, S. Devaraj, 2011
Doctors’ Orders- if they’re electronic, do they improve patient satisfaction? A complements/ substitutes perspective.
Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 29 Issue 7/8, p639-649.
Abstract: Doctors’ orders entered with Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) systems are designed to enhance patient care by standardizing routines that are intended to improve quality of healthcare. As with other health information technology (IT) performance studies, literature shows conflicting results regarding the CPOE–performance relationship. By adopting a more nuanced perspective and employing not just adoption but extent of use of CPOE, we first examine whether or not CPOE use improves patient satisfaction. Next, given that CPOEs are implemented in the backdrop of other hospital IT infrastructure, we examine how IT infrastructure impacts the relationship between CPOE use and satisfaction, testing both a complementary and substitution perspective. Finally, we examine the differential impact of CPOE use between academic and non-academic hospitals. Using data from 806 hospitals nationwide, we find a positive relationship between extent of CPOE use and patient satisfaction. Contrary to extant research, our results suggest this relationship is stronger in non-academic hospitals. We also find evidence that a hospital's IT infrastructure substitutes for CPOE use in its effect on patient satisfaction.
Daewon Sun, University of Notre Dame
Bhargava , H.K., B. Kim, and D. Sun
Commercialization of Platform Technologies: Launch Timing and Versioning Strategy
Production and Operations Management, Forthcoming
Many emerging entrepreneurial applications and services connect two or more groups of users over Internet-based information technologies. Commercial success of such technology products requires astute business practices related to product line design, price discrimination, and launch timing. We examine these issues for a platform firm that serves two markets—labeled as user and developer markets—such that the size of each market positively impacts participation in the other. In addition, our model allows for sequential unfolding of consumer and developer participation, and for uncertainty regarding developer participation. We demonstrate that product versioning is an especially attractive strategy for platform firms, that is, the trade-off between market size and margins is tilted in the direction of more versions. However, when expanding the product line carries substantial fixed costs (e.g., marketing cost, cost of additional plant, increased distribution cost), then the uncertainty in developer participation adversely impacts the firm’s ability to offer multiple versions. We show that for established firms with lower uncertainty about developer participation, the choice is essentially between an expanded or minimal product line. Startups and firms that are entering a new product category are more likely to benefit from a “wait and see” deferred expansion strategy.
Jerry Wei, University of Notre Dame
Jinxing Xie a,*, Deming Zhou b,1, Jerry C. Wei c,2, Xiande Zhao b,3
European Journal of Operational Research (2010) Vol.200, pp. 368–376
Early order commitment (EOC) is a strategy for supply chain coordination, wherein the retailer commits to purchasing from a manufacturer a fixed order quantity a few periods in advance of the regular delivery lead time. In this paper, we formulate and analyze the EOC strategy for a decentralized, two-level supply chain consisting of a single manufacturer and multiple retailers, who face external demands that follow an autocorrelated AR(1) process over time. We characterize the special structure of the optimal solutions for the retailers’ EOC periods to minimize the total supply chain cost and discuss the impact of demand parameters and cost parameters. We then develop and compare three solution approaches to solving the optimal solution. Using this optimal cost as the benchmark, we investigate the effectiveness of using the wholesale price-discount scheme for the manufacturer to coordinate this decentralized system. We give numerical examples to show the benefits of EOC to the whole supply chain, examine the efficiency of the discount scheme in general situation, and provide the special conditions when the full coordination is achieved.
Oliver Williams, University of Notre Dame
Is it Possible To Have a Business Based on Solidarity and Mutual Trust? The Challenge of Catholic Social Teaching to Capitalism and the Promise of Southwest Airlines
Journal of Catholic Social Thought, Winter 2012, pp. 59-69.
Adam Wowak, University of Notre Dame
Wowak, A. J., Hambrick, D. C., & Henderson, A. D. 2011
Do CEOs encounter within-tenure settling up? A multiperiod perspective on executive pay and dismissal.
Academy of Management Journal, 54(4): 719-739.
We consider a central puzzle surrounding CEO accountability: What explains the payoffs and penalties that CEOs receive? Invoking Fama's concept of "settling up," we examine how a CEO's entire performance record and history of prior over- or underpayment affect current pay and the odds of dismissal. We find that some parts of a CEO's historical track record work to remedy prior over- or underpayment, whereas other aspects result in greater imbalances, as rich CEOs get richer while poorer ones get poorer. History matters when boards reward or punish their CEOs, but such reckoning is relatively complex.